Understanding  Research Methodology

Research methodology is a systematic approach to conducting scientific or empirical research. It refers to the techniques and procedures used by researchers in order to collect, analyze, and interpret data. In this post, we will explore the basics of research methodology and its various components.

Survey Design

Survey design involves developing a questionnaire or interview guide that will be used to collect information from respondents. A survey may be conducted through various modes such as online, telephone or face-to-face. The design of a survey instrument includes both closed-ended responses that are easy to quantify and open-ended questions that allow for qualitative answers.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection methods involve gathering data from different sources such as surveys, interviews observations and experiments. Researchers use primary data sources such as fieldwork which requires them to gather original data while also making extensive notes on what they observe during their investigation.

Sampling Techniques

Sampling techniques refer to the process of selecting participants or subjects for an investigation; they can be random or non-random sampling methods like probability-based samples where every member has an equal chance of being chosen ,or other forms depending on specific requirements like convenience sample when looking at geographical regions .

Data Analysis Software

Data analysis software enables researchers to perform statistical analyses on collected data using customized programs (R,SAS etc) . This facilitates better interpretation and presentation of research outcomes.

Research Instruments

Research instruments are tools used in collecting empirical evidence; these could range from questionnaires, tests measuring physical abilities among others.It is important for researchers make sure their writing paraphrases verbatim quotes too reduce reliability issues.

Ethical Considerations

There are ethical considerations associated with researching humans subjects including issues related confidentiality because peoples privacy should never take second fiddle over any other interest in scientific pursuits.The researcher must obtain informed consent before carrying out human subject studies . The process explains risks benefits governance structure etc..

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2.Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing.

3.Bryman, A. P., & Bell E.J.(2019). Business research methods 4th ed,Oxford University Press

4.Kothari CR(2004) Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques , New Delih India New Age International

5.Punch Keith F(2020) Developing Effective Research Proposals Palgrave Study Guides,publisher- Palgrave Macmillan

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