Public Offer

A public offer is an invitation to the general public to buy securities or shares in a company. It is a way for companies to raise capital by selling their shares to investors.

What are the different types of public offers?

There are several types of public offers:

  • Open Offer: This is an offer made to existing shareholders of a company first, before being offered to the general public.
  • Free Offer: This is an offer where the company gives away securities or shares for free.
  • General Offer: This is an offer made to the general public without any restrictions.
  • Broad Offer: This is an offer made to a large group of people, such as employees, customers or suppliers.
  • Transparent Offer: This is an offer where the company provides full disclosure about its financial and business information.

How does a public offer work?

A company that wants to raise capital through a public offer will hire an investment bank or broker-dealer to manage the offering. The investment bank will help the company prepare the necessary documents and prospectus, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The prospectus contains all the information about the company's business, financials and risks.

Once the SEC approves the prospectus, the investment bank will start marketing the offering to potential investors. Investors can place their orders through their brokers or directly with the investment bank. The price of the shares will be determined through a process called bookbuilding, where investors indicate how many shares they want and at what price.

Who can participate in a public offer?

Anyone can participate in a public offer, as long as they have a brokerage account and meet certain eligibility requirements. Some offers may have minimum investment amounts or be restricted to certain types of investors, such as accredited investors.

What are the benefits of participating in a public offer?

Participating in a public offer can provide several benefits, such as:

  • The opportunity to invest in a company at an early stage and potentially benefit from its growth.
  • Diversification of investment portfolio.
  • Access to companies and industries that may not be available through other investments.

What are the risks of participating in a public offer?

Investing in a public offer comes with risks, such as:

  • The possibility of losing all or part of the investment if the company does not perform well.
  • The lack of liquidity, as shares may not be listed on a stock exchange and may be difficult to sell.
  • The risk of fraud or misrepresentation by the company or its management.


  1. Damodaran, A. (2012). Investment valuation: Tools and techniques for determining the value of any asset. John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Brigham, E. F., & Ehrhardt, M. C. (2013). Financial management: Theory & practice. Cengage Learning.
  3. Ross, S. A., Westerfield, R. W., & Jordan, B. D. (2015). Fundamentals of corporate finance. McGraw-Hill Education.
  4. Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. J. (2014). Investments (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
  5. Hull, J. C. (2018). Options, futures, and other derivatives (10th ed.). Pearson Education.
Copyright © 2023 . All rights reserved.