# Understanding  Face Value

## Understanding Face Value in Stock Valuation

If you're interested in financial accounting or investment analysis, then you must have come across the term "face value." In simple terms, face value refers to the nominal value of a security, which is usually printed on the security certificate. This value is significant in stock valuation and investment analysis because it determines the minimum price at which a security can be traded. In this post, we will delve deeper into understanding face value and how it influences various aspects of stock valuation.

### What is face value?

Face value is a nominal or arbitrary value assigned to a security, such as stocks and bonds, by the issuer. It represents the initial capital amount invested by shareholders or bondholders when they purchase the security. For instance, if a company issues shares at \$10 each, then the face value of those shares is \$10.

### How does face value affect stock valuation?

Face value plays an essential role in determining the true worth of a company's shares. It serves as a benchmark for calculating other metrics like market capitalization, dividend yield, and earnings per share. Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying the total number of outstanding shares with the current market price per share. Hence, it's evident that face value influences market capitalization indirectly.

### Can face value change over time?

Yes, the face value of securities can be subject to change over time. However, such changes do not impact the market price of a share. For instance, if a company decides to split its shares by increasing their number while reducing their face value proportionally, this wouldn't change their actual worth. Similarly, if a company issues bonus shares to its existing shareholders without affecting their market price or capitalization.

### How does face value relate to dividend yield?

Dividend yield represents the percentage return on investment that shareholders receive from dividends paid out by a company. The dividend yield calculation is based on the current market price of the shares and not the face value. However, the face value is still essential in determining the maximum dividend that a company can pay out to shareholders since it serves as the minimum price per share.

### How important is face value in investment analysis?

Face value is an essential metric for investment analysis as it helps analysts understand a company's capital structure better. They can use it to calculate various financial ratios such as debt-to-equity ratio, book value per share, and price-to-book ratio. These ratios provide insights into a company's financial health, profitability, and investment potential.

### How do you calculate face value?

To calculate the face value of a security, you need to divide the total capital invested by the number of securities issued. For example, if a company raises \$1 million by issuing 100,000 shares at \$10 each, then the face value of each share would be \$10.

## References

1. Brealey, R.A., Myers, S.C., & Allen, F. (2017). Principles of Corporate Finance. McGraw-Hill Education.
2. Damodaran, A. (2012). Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining the Value of any Asset (2nd ed.). Wiley.
3. Graham, B., & Dodd, D.L. (2009). Security Analysis: The Classic 1934 Edition (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
4. Ross, S.A., Westerfield, R.W., & Jaffe, J.F. (2018). Corporate Finance (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
5. Shiller, R.J. (2015). Irrational Exuberance (3rd ed.). Princeton University Press.